In culture of many nations fair skin is a sign of gentrice, beauty and aristocratism. Complexion significantly influences the impression the person makes on the associates. But it is not easy to achieve uniform skin relief and tone. It is important not to harm sensitive skin, not to break the mechanism of self-regulation, not to cause allergic reaction, inflammation or reddening. That’s why the products for lightening are to be accurately selected. They are to be mild, non-toxic and contain effective whitening components.

Pigmentation factors

Completion can deteriorate for various reasons: because of alcohol or smoking abuse, sleep deprivation, vascular and visceral diseases, negative environment influence and excessive sunburn.

Undesirable skin tone can appear because of:

  • oxygenated hemoglobin (cyanotic, bluish or reddish);
  • heterogeneous corneous layer (yellowish);
  • nonregular melanin distribution (dark or grey).

Pigment spots (chloasmata after pregnancy, sunspots, age-related freckles, posttraumatic hyper pigmentation, birthmarks) are melanin accumulations. These cells protect from ultraviolet and the other factors. They are very sensitive to mechanical impact and pigmentation is increasing in stresses, diseases, aggressive cosmetic procedures. That’s why attention is required in lightening in order not to trigger reverse reaction.

Additionally, you should not abuse skin lightening, if the face is impaired by:

  • damages (wounds, traumas, stitches);
  • rashes (pimples, blackheads);
  • diseases (allergy, dermatitis, couperosis, melanoma, vitiligo);
  • recent operations (cosmetic or medical).

Undertaking lightening procedures at home, you can harm yourself, irritate the skin. Thus it is preferable to choose lightening products upon the cosmetologist recommendations and follow the application instructions. The desired effect may be achieved only by regular, systematic care, gradually, during several months, and the procedures are discontinued as soon as the objective is accomplished.

Effective whitening substances and components

Effective lightening components in cosmetics are:

  • hydroquinone;
  • kojic acid;
  • arbutin;
  • azelaic acid;
  • ascorbic acid.

Hydroquinone perfectly whitens the skin, but it is toxic; so it is usually replaced by effective, but non-toxic kojic acid. Botanical components (extracts of bearberry, peppermint, mallow, melissa, primrose, yarrow, aloe, licorice), antioxidants, retinoids enhance whitening effect. They have antiseptic, astringent, exfoliation effect, being the safest and the most efficient. Alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic, citric, tartaric, malic or glycolic) accelerate exfoliation of the keratinous layer and improve penetration of the whitening components to the skin, but they are to be applied sparingly and carefully in order to avoid hyperpigmentation. In this regard antioxidants and regenerating components in the same product are also used.

Whitening care at home

Skin renovation and lightening requires:

  • cleansing;
  • exfoliation (removal of keratinized cells);
  • depigmentation masks;
  • skin moisturizing and nutrition;
  • sun protection.

Gels and milk are used for make-up removal and cleansing. There are exfoliating serums, natural scrubs and peelings for removing the top layer of cells. By doing that the skin around the eyes is noway to be handled by lightening preparations! In case of hyperemia or redness, exfoliation stage should be skipped. It is recommended to select the masks with retinol, natural oils, pearl powder.

After all of these procedures the skin is to be protected by sunlight and carefully moisturized. During several days it will be especially vulnerable and you should take care of it.

Facial skin should be lightened especially carefully. Be thoughtful for your health condition, use only natural non-toxic effective whitening products. And after the procedures the skin is to be protected. Avoid being exposed to the sun, wear high-necked clothes.